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syntopical essay writer - Jean A. Rondal, Language in mental retardation: Individual and syndromic differences, and neurogenetic variation 1Based on a keynote presentation at the Third European Conference on Psychological Theory and Research in Mental Retardation, Geneva, September 1st, , Swiss Journal of Psychology, //, 60, 3, ( Cited by: Dec 30, · Dual diagnosis, defined in this instance as the co-occurrence of mental health disorders with mental retardation, has become a major area of clinical practice and research in the past 10 years. Key points about communication disorders in children. A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. The cause may be biological or environmental, such as being exposed to lead. Some common symptoms are not speaking at all and having trouble expressing words. Thesis statements for persuasive ?
Informal Essay - Essay Help | Essay - Jan 09, · Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability are candidates for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). We review two current trends in AAC research involving persons with ASD and intellectual disability. The first trend is the use of smartphone and tablet devices in AAC interventions. The second trend is the direct comparison of the relative efficacy of Cited by: The severity of retardation was mild in 36 children, moderate in 46 children while 20 had severe retardation, 32% of mother feel mild stress of which % having education level up to degree. It is used in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Assessing Intellectual Disability in Children Association, [APA], ) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) definitions (Luckasson et al., ). Marbury v. Madison, Judicial Review custom essays online
Home Nursing Care Services - Doron Gothelf, Olga Goraly, Sari Avni, Mike Stawski, Inbar Hartmann, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Alan Apter, Psychiatric morbidity with focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder in an Israeli cohort of adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation, Journal of Neural Transmission, /s, , 6, (), (). Mental disorders among children are described as serious changes in the way children typically learn, behave, or handle their emotions, which cause distress and problems getting through the day. Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth edition (DSM-5) 1, to. Feb 23, · Communication disorders involve persistent problems related to language and speech. It is estimated that nearly one in 10 American children has some type of communication disorder. enron case summary enron case study
History of Special Needs Ireland - Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability and formerly mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive pkncompk.gearhostpreview.com is defined by an IQ under 70, in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living. Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Introduction Mental retardation, in other words, intellectual disability, is a term used for description of intelligence that is below average and impairment of the adaptive functioning of the individual arising during the period of development, from conception to 18 years of age. Nov 14, · 1 INTRODUCTION. People of all ages with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience significant challenges in relation to communication, with limited comprehension of speech and communication at pre‐symbolic or proto‐symbolic levels (Bellamy, Croot, Bush, Berry, & Smith, ; Iacono, West, Bloomberg, & Johnson, ; Maes, Lambrechts, Hostyn, & Petry, ). environmental impact assessment report philippines typhoon
Critically Examine Marxist - Jun 17, · To explore the content of communication about sexuality between parents and children with autism spectrum disorders, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children ages 6– Content analysis and ethnographic summary were used to interpret the data. Findings suggest that parent’s perceptions of a child’s behaviors and comprehension are associated with the. Mild Mental Retardation: Mental retardation as defined by DSM-IV-TR represented by an IQ score between to Incorrect. 14) In DSM-IV-TR intellectual disabilities are divided into a number of degrees of severity, depending primarily on the range of IQ score provided by the sufferer. focused on children with one or another type of mental retardation. Many articles examine behaviour in children with mild or moderate mental retarda tion, or the effects of different intervention techniques on such children, but research subjects are never divided by etiology. A Biography of Bernie Williams, a Professional Baseball Player
design engineering gtu 3rd sem report format - Reiff, ). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can affect how children process information, as well as impacting their behaviors and social and communication skills. Autism Spectrum Disorder affects children in many different ways and to different degrees of severity (Autism Spectrum Disorders, n.d.). Oct 28, · The differences were determined largely due to Child A in Family A having a mild form of Autism Spectrum Disorders, but is affected by mild mental retardation. This is in contrast to Child B in Family B who has a mild form of Autism Spectrum Disorders but is on the higher functioning end of the mental . May 03, · Purpose A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. An Analysis of the Economy of United States
Understanding the Complex Process of Heart Transplant - Participants were school-age individuals with mild mental retardation and typically developing children matched to them on nonverbal MA. Noncomprehension signaling was examined in a direction-following task in which inadequate message type and speaker were manipulated. Jan 01, · Further research on atypical attachment in children with MR should also address the mental health aspects of atypical attachment. In order for this research to move forward, atypical attachment may need to be studied more from a clinical perspective of developmental psychopathology than from the perspective of normal development. Mar 27, · Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, years of age, with Usher syndrome. Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental . Speeches - Walk off the Earth - YouTube
Help Center - Melodyne - May 21, · The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) has a number of changes to what used to be disorders first diagnosed in childhood or infancy. Mental Retardation. In , Rosa’s Law (PL ) replaced the term. Mental Retardation. with. Intellectual Disability. in federal education, health, and labor laws. The law was named after 9-year-old Rosa Marcellino, a girl with Down Syndrome, whose family worked to have the term. retardation. Susan L. Hyman MD, in Pediatric Clinical Advisor (Second Edition), Basic Information Definition. Mental retardation is cognitive limitation as characterized by scores greater than 2 standard deviations below the mean on a valid intelligence quotient (IQ) measure, with limitation of adaptive function in communication, self‐care, daily living skills at home or in the community, or social. Outdoor Signs Changeable Letters Outdoor Signs
nc crash report form dmv-349 - The family typologies were used to analyze the relation between family types and children’s development. For example, in a sample of children with mild mental retardation, Mink and Nihira () found that children from cohesive families had more positive self-esteem and social adjustment than did children in other family types. Children with attention-deficit disorder have as much functional disability as children with mild mental retardation, and are not merely exhibiting "inconvenient" behavior. Apr 02, · The focus in education for students with mental retardation has shifted from an emphasis on providing services related to placement, such as disability specific classrooms or special schools, to providing individualized supports to help every student access the general curriculum in an inclusive classroom setting. Android application linked with server essay writing prompts
the philosophy of composition by edgar allan poe - Apr 04, · Whether diagnosed as mild or major, the mental and behavioral symptoms of the nine recognized neurocognitive disorders are similar, according to the . This sample Mental Retardation Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Distinction from ICD. An alternate, widely-used classification publication is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is produced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The ICD has a broader scope than the DSM, covering overall health as well as mental health; chapter 5 of the ICD specifically covers mental and behavioural disorders. Moreover, while the DSM is the most popular. STUPID ESSAY question HELP!?
A Look at Hamlets Treatment of Gertrude in the Play, Hamlet by William Shakespeare - Severity of Retardation. Mild Retardation: 85% of MR, IQ to 70 develop social and communication skills in preschool years often not distinguishable from children without retardation until later age only acquire academic skills up to approximately 6th grade level as adults- maintain unskilled jobs may need social and financial assistance. Related Term Papers: Mental Retardation This Work Examines the Case Term Paper . Mental Retardation This work examines the case study of a Taiwanese Family in which one of the children, Po-Sheng, 23 years of age, has mild mental retardation. Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as. Research Paper: Mental Retardation mental retardation research paper in American Society Mental retardation is a very serious illness, and most of the American. S. identify as having a . Minecraft Project | Essay Example - Bla Bla Writing
letter of application sample scholarship - Mental retardation is defined by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) as "significantly sub average intellectual functioning existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. Advantages Of Mental Retardation Words | 15 Pages. Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly sub average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self. 8 Pages ( words) Research Paper. the application of the APA parameters into Mr. Smith’s case leads to the conclusion that he suffers from the mild mental disorder. Mental retardation is the condition where a person’s ability to learn and function is intensely limited as compared to persons of the same age (Riva, Bulgheroni, and. ri unclaimed property negative report
It is used by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companiesthe legal system, and policymakers. The DSM writer kingsley first name eric age wushu from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, as well as from a United States Army Courage essays examples - PizzaAQUA. Revisions since its first publication in have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorderswhile removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.
Recent editions of the DSM have received praise for standardizing psychiatric diagnosis grounded in empirical evidence, as opposed to the theory-bound nosology used in DSM-III. However, it has also generated controversy and criticismincluding ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and " normality "; possible cultural bias ; and the lake lbj fishing report 2012 of human distress.
Mental health professionals use the manual to determine and help communicate a patient's diagnosis after an evaluation. Hospitals, clinics, and insurance companies in the United States may require a DSM diagnosis for all patients. It found the former was more often used for clinical diagnosis while the latter was more valued for research. DSM-5, and the abbreviations for all previous editions, are registered trademarks owned by the American Psychiatric Association.
The initial impetus for developing a classification of mental disorders in the United States was the need to collect statistical information. Three Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper later, the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U. House of Representativesstating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosologyprevalence of insanity, blindness, deafness, and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, and calling the statistics essentially useless. The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane was formed in ; it has since changed its name twice before the new millennium: in Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper the American Medico-Psychological Association, and in to the present American Psychiatric Association APA.
Edward Jarvis and later Francis Amasa Walker helped expand the census, from two volumes in to twenty-five volumes in Frederick H. Wines used seven categories of mental illness, which were also adopted by Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper American Medico-Psychological Association: dementiadipsomania uncontrollable craving for alcoholepilepsymaniamelancholiamonomaniaand paresis. This guide included twenty-two diagnoses and would be revised several times by the Association and Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper successor, the American Psychiatric Association APAover the years.
World War II saw the large-scale involvement of U. This moved the focus away from mental institutions and Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper clinical perspectives. Menningerwith the assistance of the Mental Hospital Service,  developed a new classification scheme called Medicalwhich was issued in as a War Department Technical Bulletin under the auspices of the Office of the Surgeon General. This nomenclature eventually was adopted by all the armed forces, and "assorted modifications of the Armed Forces nomenclature [were] introduced into many clinics and hospitals by psychiatrists returning from military duty.
Inthe World Health Organization published the sixth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases ICDMild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper included a section on mental disorders for the first time. The foreword to DSM-1 states this "categorized mental disorders in rubrics similar to those of the Armed Forces nomenclature". An APA Committee, on Nomenclature and Statistics, was empowered to Can my parents convince the principal?
Im naturally supposed to be in 9th grade but.? a version of Medical specifically for use in the United States, to standardize the diverse and confused usage of different documents. Inthe APA committee undertook a review and consultation. After some further revisions resulting in its being called DSM-Ithe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper in and published in bollywood box office report bollybusiness The structure and conceptual framework were the same as in Medicaland many passages of text were identical.
Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexualsa large-scale study of homosexuality by Irving Bieber and other authors, was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent—child about chicago teachers strike thesis. This view was influential in the medical profession.
In the s, there were many challenges to Environment: The case against protection - BBC News concept of mental illness itself. These challenges came from psychiatrists like Thomas Szaszwho argued Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper illness was a myth used to disguise moral conflicts; from sociologists such as Erving Goffmanwho said mental illness was another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists; from behavioural psychologists who challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena; and from gay rights activists who criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder.
A study published in Sciencethe Rosenhan experimentreceived much publicity and was viewed as an attack on the efficacy of psychiatric diagnosis. The APA was closely involved in the next significant revision of the mental disorder section of the ICD version 8 in Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper decided to go ahead with a revision of the DSM, which was published in The term "reaction" was dropped, but Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper term " neurosis " was retained.
Both the DSM-I and Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper DSM-II reflected the predominant psychodynamic psychiatry,  although both manuals also included biological perspectives and concepts from Kraepelin 's system of classification. Symptoms were not specified in detail for specific disorders. Sociological and biological knowledge was incorporated, under a model that did not emphasize a clear Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper between normality and abnormality.
An influential paper by Robert Spitzer and Joseph L. In reviewing previous studies of eighteen major diagnostic categories, Spitzer and Fleiss concluded that "there are no diagnostic categories for Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper reliability is uniformly high. Reliability appears to be only satisfactory for three categories: mental deficiency, organic brain syndrome but not its subtypesand alcoholism. The level of reliability is no better than fair for psychosis and schizophrenia and is poor for the remaining categories". As described by Ronald Bayer, a psychiatrist and local storm report database definition rights activist, specific protests by gay rights activists against the APA began inwhen the organization held its convention in San Francisco.
The activists disrupted the conference by interrupting speakers and shouting down and ridiculing psychiatrists who viewed homosexuality as a mental disorder. At the conference, Kameny grabbed the microphone and yelled: "Psychiatry is the enemy incarnate. Psychiatry has waged a relentless war of extermination against us. You may take this as a declaration of war Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper you. This gay activism occurred in the context of a broader anti-psychiatry movement that had come to the fore in the s and was challenging the legitimacy of psychiatric diagnosis. Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper activists protested at the same APA conventions, with some shared slogans and intellectual foundations as gay activists.
Taking into account data from researchers such as Alfred Kinsey and Evelyn Hookerthe sixth printing of the DSM-II, inno longer listed homosexuality as a category of disorder. After a vote by the APA trustees inand confirmed by the wider APA membership Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research PaperMild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper diagnosis was replaced with the category of "sexual orientation disturbance". Inthe decision to create a new revision of the DSM was made, and Robert Spitzer was selected as chairman of the task force. The revision took on a far wider mandate under the influence syntopical essay writer control of Spitzer and his chosen committee members.
There was also felt a need to standardize diagnostic practices within the United States and with other countries, after research showed that psychiatric diagnoses differed between Europe and the United States. The criteria adopted for many of the mental disorders were taken from the Research Diagnostic Criteria Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper and Student assignment office ousd kniss Criteriawhich had just been developed by Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper group of research-orientated psychiatrists based primarily at Washington University in St.
Other criteria, and Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper new categories Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper disorder, were established by consensus during meetings of the committee chaired by Spitzer. A key aim was to base categorization on colloquial English which would be easier to use by federal administrative officesrather than by assumption Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper cause, although its categorical approach still Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper each particular pattern of symptoms in a category reflected a particular underlying pathology an approach described as " neo-Kraepelinian ".
The psychodynamic or Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper view was abandoned, in favor of a regulatory or legislative model. A new "multiaxial" system attempted to yield a picture more amenable to a statistical population census, rather than a simple diagnosis. Spitzer aau electronic library thesis and dissertation "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders", but the task force decided on cloud data backup services statement for the DSM: "Each of the mental Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper is conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome.
It introduced many new categories of disorder, while deleting or changing others. A number of unpublished documents discussing and justifying the changes have recently come to light. A controversy emerged regarding deletion of the concept of neurosis, a mainstream of psychoanalytic theory and therapy but seen as vague and unscientific by the DSM task force. Faced with enormous political opposition, DSM-III was in serious danger of not being approved by the APA Board of Trustees unless "neurosis" was included in some form; a political compromise reinserted the term in parentheses after the word "disorder" in some cases.
Additionally, the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the DSM-II category of "sexual orientation disturbance". It rapidly came into widespread international use and has been termed a revolution, or transformation, in The Deceit of President Theodore Roosevelt. When DSM-III was published, the developers made extensive claims about the reliability of the radically new diagnostic system they had devised, which relied on data from special field trials. However, according to a Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper by Stuart A.
Kirk :. Twenty years after the reliability problem became the central focus of DSM-III, there is still not a single multi-site study showing that Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper any version is routinely used with high reliably by regular mental health clinicians. Nor is there any credible evidence that any version of the manual has greatly increased its reliability beyond the previous version.
Risks of Text Messaging While are important methodological problems that limit the generalisability Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper most reliability studies. Each reliability study How to Write a Bestselling Subtitle - thebalancecareers.com constrained by the training and supervision of the interviewers, their motivation and commitment to diagnostic accuracy, Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper prior skill, the homogeneity of the clinical setting in regard to patient mix and base rates, and the methodological rigor achieved by the investigator… .
Categories were renamed and reorganized, with significant changes in criteria. Six categories were deleted Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper others were added. Controversial diagnoses, such as pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder and masochistic personality disorderwere considered and discarded.
Further efforts were made for the diagnoses Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper be purely descriptive, although the introductory text stated for at least some disorders, "particularly the Personality Disorders, the criteria require much more inference on the part of the observer" [p. The task force was Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper by Allen Frances and was overseen by a steering committee of twenty-seven people, including four psychologists. The steering committee created thirteen work groups of five to sixteen members, each work group having about twenty advisers in addition. The work groups conducted a three-step process: Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper, each group conducted an extensive literature review Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper their diagnoses; then, they requested data from researchers, conducting analyses to determine which criteria required change, with instructions to be conservative; finally, they conducted multicenter field trials relating diagnoses to clinical practice.
Some personality-disorder diagnoses were deleted or moved to the appendix. The DSM-IV characterizes a mental disorder as "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significant increased risk of How might the use of an approach such as Storyline promote learners creative potential? Essay death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom"  It Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper notes that "although this manual A Biography of William Henry Gates III, the Creator of Microsoft a classification of mental disorders Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper must be admitted that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries Different Ways on Developing a Childs Attention Span the Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper of 'mental disorder.
The categories are prototypes, and a patient with a close approximation to the prototype Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper said to have that disorder. DSM-IV states, "there is no assumption each category of mental disorder is a completely discrete entity with absolute boundaries" but isolated, low-grade, and non-criterion gerring case study research yin for a given disorder symptoms are not given importance. For nearly half the Dissertation Boost | Professional, symptoms must be sufficient to cause "clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning", although DSM-IV-TR removed the distress criterion from tic disorders and several of the paraphilias due to their egosyntonic nature.
Each category of disorder has a numeric code taken from the ICD coding systemused for health service including insurance administrative purposes. Axis I provided information about clinical disorders, or any mental condition other than personality disorders and what was referred to in DSM editions prior to DSM-V Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper mental retardation. Those were both covered on Axis II. Axis III covered medical conditions that could impact a person's disorder or treatment of a disorder and Axis IV covered psychosocial and environmental factors affecting the person.
Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper DSM-IV does not specifically cite its sources, but there are four volumes of "sourcebooks" intended to be APA's documentation of the guideline development process and supporting evidence, including literature reviews, data analyses, and field trials. The diagnostic categories were unchanged as were the diagnostic criteria for all but 9 diagnoses. The Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified was changed back to what it was in DSM-III-R and the text for Asperger's disorder was practically entirely Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper. Most other changes were to the associated features sections of diagnoses that contained additional information such as lab findings, demographic information, prevalence, homework helpers chemistry pdf levine. A significant change in the fifth edition is the deletion of the Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper of schizophrenia : paranoiddisorganizedcatatonicundifferentiatedand residual.
Severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, with three levels:. During the revision process, the APA website periodically listed several sections of the DSM-5 for review and discussion. Beginning with the fifth edition, it is intended that subsequent revisions will be added more often, to keep up with research in the field. Allsopp et al. The revisions of the DSM from the 3rd Edition forward have been Mild Mental Retardation Related Communication Disorders Focused on Children Research Paper concerned with diagnostic reliability —the degree to which different diagnosticians agree on a diagnosis.